Fluss Vera

Review of: Fluss Vera

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Fluss Vera

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I cheerfully accept all the painful A Student's Prayer by St. Adoro Te Devote by St. Rosaries, Crosses, Prayer Cards and more Vickers of England naturally suspended royalty payments during the war Krupp held the patent on shell fuses , but back-payment was made in In , the German government seized Belgian industry and conscripted Belgian civilians for forced labor in the Ruhr.

These were novelties in modern warfare and in violation of the Hague Conventions , to which Germany was a signatory.

During the war, Friedrich Krupp Germaniawerft produced 84 U-boats for the German navy, as well as the Deutschland submarine freighter, intended to ship raw material to Germany despite the blockade.

In the Allies named Gustav a war criminal , but the trials never proceeded. After the war, the firm was forced to renounce arms manufacturing.

Gustav attempted to reorient to consumer products, under the slogan "Wir machen alles! The company laid off 70, workers but was able to stave off Socialist unrest by continuing severance pay and its famous social services for workers.

The company opened a dental hospital to provide steel teeth and jaws for wounded veterans. It received its first contract from the Prussian State railway, and manufactured its first locomotive.

In , the Ruhr Uprising occurred in reaction to the Kapp Putsch. Krupp's factory in Essen was occupied, and independent republics were declared, but the German Reichswehr invaded from Westphalia and quickly restored order.

Later in the year, Britain oversaw the dismantling of much of Krupp's factory, reducing capacity by half and shipping industrial equipment to France as war reparations.

In the hyperinflation of , the firm printed Kruppmarks for use in Essen, which was the only stable currency there. France and Belgium occupied the Ruhr and established martial law.

French soldiers inspecting Krupp's factory in Essen were cornered by workers in a garage, opened fire with a machine gun, and killed thirteen.

This incident spurred reprisal killings and sabotage across the Rhineland, and when Krupp held a large, public funeral for the workers, he was fined and jailed by the French.

This made him a national hero, and he was granted an amnesty by the French after seven months. Although Krupp was a monarchist at heart, he cooperated with the Weimar Republic ; as a munitions manufacturer his first loyalty was to the government in power.

He was deeply involved with the Reichswehr 's evasion of the Treaty of Versailles , and secretly engaged in arms design and manufacture.

In Krupp bought Bofors in Sweden as a front company and sold arms to neutral nations including the Netherlands and Denmark. In , Krupp established Suderius AG in the Netherlands, as a front company for shipbuilding, and sold submarine designs to neutrals including the Netherlands, Spain, Turkey, Finland, and Japan.

German Chancellor Wirth arranged for Krupp to secretly continue designing artillery and tanks, coordinating with army chief von Seeckt and navy chief Paul Behncke.

Krupp was able to hide this activity from Allied inspectors for five years, and kept up his engineers' skills by hiring them out to Eastern European governments including Russia.

Germany, however, chose to violate quotas and pay fines, in order to monopolize the Ruhr's output and continue making high-grade steel.

In , Krupp began the manufacture of Widia "Wie Diamant" cobalt-tungsten carbide. In , the Chrysler Building was capped with Krupp steel. Gustav and especially Bertha were initially skeptical of Hitler, who was not of their class.

Gustav's skepticism toward the Nazis waned when Hitler dropped plans to nationalize business, the Communists gained seats in the 6 November elections, and Chancellor Kurt von Schleicher suggested a planned economy with price controls.

Despite this, as late as the day before President Paul von Hindenburg appointed Hitler Chancellor, Gustav warned him not to do so. However, after Hitler won power, Gustav became enamoured with the Nazis Fritz Thyssen described him as "a super-Nazi" to a degree his wife and subordinates found bizarre.

Gustav ousted Jews from the organization and disbanded the board, establishing himself as the sole-decision maker.

Hitler visited Gustav just before the Röhm purge in , which among other things eliminated many of those who actually believed in the "socialism" of "National Socialism.

As part of Hitler's secret rearmament program, Krupp expanded from 35, to , employees. Gustav was alarmed at Hitler's aggressive foreign policy after the Munich Agreement , but by then he was fast succumbing to senility and was effectively displaced by his son Alfried.

He was indicted at the Nuremberg Trials but never tried, due to his advanced dementia. He was thus the only German to be accused of being a war criminal after both world wars.

He was nursed by his wife in a roadside inn near Blühnbach until his death in , and then cremated and interred quietly, since his adopted name was at that time one of the most notorious in the American Zone.

As the eldest son of Bertha Krupp , Alfried was destined by family tradition to become the sole heir of the Krupp concern.

An amateur photographer and Olympic sailor, he was an early supporter of Nazism among German industrialists, joining the SS in , and never disavowing his allegiance to Hitler.

His father's health began to decline in , and after a stroke in , Alfried took over full control of the firm, continuing its role as main arms supplier to Germany at war.

In , Hitler decreed the Lex Krupp , authorizing the transfer of all Bertha's shares to Alfried, giving him the name "Krupp" and dispossessing his siblings.

This activity became the basis for the charge of "plunder" at the war crimes trial of Krupp executives after the war. As another war crime , Krupp used slave labor, both POWs and civilians from occupied countries, and Krupp representatives were sent to concentration camps to select laborers.

Treatment of Slavic and Jewish slaves was particularly harsh, since they were considered sub-human in Nazi Germany , and Jews were targeted for " extermination through labor ".

The number of slaves cannot be calculated due to constant fluctuation but is estimated at ,, at a time when the free employees of Krupp numbered , The highest number of Jewish slave laborers at any one time was about 25, in January In —, Krupp built the Berthawerk factory named for his mother , near the Markstadt forced labour camp , for production of artillery fuses.

Jewish women were used as slave labor there, leased from the SS for 4 Marks a head per day. Later in it was taken over by Union Werke.

In , although Russia in retreat relocated many factories to the Urals, steel factories were simply too large to move. Krupp took over production, including at the Molotov steel works near Kharkov and Kramatorsk in eastern Ukraine, and at mines supplying the iron, manganese, and chrome vital for steel production.

The battle of Stalingrad in convinced Krupp that Germany would lose the war, and he secretly began liquidating million Marks in government bonds.

This allowed him to retain much of his fortune and hide it overseas. Beginning in , Allied bombers targeted the main German industrial district in the Ruhr.

Most damage at Krupp's works was actually to the slave labor camps, and German tank production continued to increase from 1, to 1, per month.

However, by the end of the war, with a manpower shortage preventing repairs, the main factories were out of commission.

On 25 July the Royal Air Force attacked the Krupp Works with heavy bombers, dropping 2, long tons of bombs in an Oboe -marked attack.

Upon his arrival at the works the next morning, Gustav Krupp suffered a fit from which he never recovered. After the war, the Ruhr became part of the British Zone of occupation.

The British dismantled Krupp's factories, sending machinery all over Europe as war reparations. The Russians seized Krupp's Grusonwerk in Magdeburg, including the formula for tungsten steel.

Germaniawerft in Kiel was dismantled, and Krupp's role as an arms manufacturer came to an end. Allied High Commission Law 27, in , mandated the decartelization of German industry.

Meanwhile, Alfried was held in Landsberg prison , where Hitler had been imprisoned in At the Krupp Trial , held in — in Nuremberg following the main Nuremberg trials , Alfried and most of his co-defendants were convicted of crimes against humanity plunder and slave labor , while being acquitted of crimes against peace, and conspiracy.

Alfried was condemned to 12 years in prison and the "forfeiture of all [his] property both real and personal," making him a pauper.

Two years later, on 31 January , John J. McCloy , High Commissioner of the American zone of occupation, issued an amnesty to the Krupp defendants.

Much of Alfried's industrial empire was restored, but he was forced to transfer some of his fortune to his siblings, and he renounced arms manufacturing.

By this time, West Germany 's Wirtschaftswunder had begun, and the Korean War had shifted the United States's priority from denazification to anti-Communism.

German industry was seen as integral to western Europe 's economic recovery, the limit on steel production was lifted, and the reputation of Hitler-era firms and industrialists was rehabilitated.

Hitler's Lex Krupp was upheld, reestablishing Alfried as sole proprietor, but Krupp mining and steel businesses were sequestered and pledged to be divested by There is scant evidence that Alfried intended to fulfill his side of the bargain, and he continued to receive royalties from the sequestered industries.

Despite having only 16, employees and 16, pensioners, Alfried refused to cut pensions. He ended unprofitable businesses including shipbuilding, railway tyres, and farm equipment.

He hired Berthold Beitz , an insurance executive, as the face of the company, and began a public relations campaign to promote Krupp worldwide, omitting references to Nazism or arms manufacturing.

Beginning with Adenauer , he established personal diplomacy with heads of state, making both open and secret deals to sell equipment and engineering expertise.

Expansion was significant in the former colonies of Great Britain and behind the Iron Curtain , in countries eager to industrialize but suspicious of NATO.

Krupp built rolling mills in Mexico, paper mills in Egypt, foundries in Iran, refineries in Greece, a vegetable oil processing plant in Sudan, and its own steel plant in Brazil.

In West Germany, Krupp made jet fighters in Bremen, as a joint venture with United Aircraft , and built an atomic reactor in Jülich, partly funded by the government.

The company expanded to , employees worldwide, and in Krupp was the fourth largest in Europe after Royal Dutch , Unilever , and Mannesmann , and the 12th largest in the world.

Krupp not only took back control of those companies in , he used a shell company in Sweden to buy the Bochumer Verein für Gussstahlfabrikation AG, in his opinion the best remaining steel manufacturer in West Germany.

The Common Market allowed these moves, effectively ending the Allied policy of decartelization. Alfried was the richest man in Europe, and among the world's handful of billionaires.

The treatment of Jews during the war had remained an issue. In , Adenauer acknowledged that "unspeakable crimes were perpetrated in the name of the German people, which impose upon them the obligation to make moral and material amends.

In the mids, a series of blows ended the special status of Krupp. A recession in exposed the company's overextended credit and turned Alfried's cherished mining and steel companies into loss-leaders.

In , the West German Federal Tax Court ended sales tax exemptions for private companies, of which Krupp was the largest, and voided the Hitler-era exemption of the company from inheritance tax.

Alfried's only son, Arndt von Bohlen und Halbach — , would not develop an interest in the family business and was willing to renounce his inheritance.

Alfried arranged for the firm to be reorganized as a corporation and a foundation for scientific research, with a generous pension for Arndt.

Although Arndt was homosexual, like his great-grandfather Friedrich Fritz Krupp, he married but was childless.

He was an alcoholic and died of cancer in , aged 48, years after Arndt Krupp arrived in Essen. Alfried had married twice, both ending in divorce, and by family tradition he had excluded his siblings from company management.

He died in Essen in , and the company's transformation was completed the next year, capitalized at million DM, with Beitz in charge of the Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach Foundation and chairman of the corporation's board until Between and the foundation awarded grants totaling around million DM.

In , the coal mines were transferred to Ruhrkohle AG. Stahlwerke Südwestfalen was bought for stainless steel, and Polysius AG and Heinrich Koppers for engineering and the construction of industrial plants.

In the early s, the company spun off all its operating activities and was restructured as a holding company. VDM Nickel-Technologie was bought in , for high-performance materials, mechanical engineering and electronics.

That year, Gerhard Cromme became chairman and chief executive of Krupp. After its hostile takeover of rival steelmaker Hoesch AG in —, the companies were merged in as "Fried.

The new Krupp had six divisions: steel, engineering, plant construction, automotive supplies, trade, and services. In Krupp attempted a hostile takeover of the larger Thyssen, but the bid was abandoned after resistance from Thyssen management and protests by its workers.

About 6, workers were laid off. Later that year, Krupp and Thyssen announced a full merger, which was completed in with the formation of ThyssenKrupp AG.

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